Science Omega 3/6

Door de Europese Unie toegestane gezondheidsclaims voor omega 3-vetzuren:

  • EPA en DHA dragen bij tot de normale werking van het hart bij een dagelijkse inname van 250 mg EPA/DHA
  • EPA en DHA dragen bij tot de instandhouding van normale triglyceridengehalten in het bloed bij een dagelijkse inname van 2 gram EPA/DHA
  • EPA en DHA dragen bij tot het behoud van de normale bloeddruk bij een dagelijkse inname van 3 gram EPA/DHA
  • DHA is goed voor het gezichtsvermogen en ondersteunt de hersenfunctie bij een dagelijkse inname van 250 mg DHA


Wetenschappelijke studies met betrekking tot omega 3-vetzuren:

Stark KD, Van Elswyk ME, Roberta Higgins M, Weatherford CA, Salem Jr. N. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults. // Progress in Lipid Research
Calder PC. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. // Nutrients
Alex A., Abbott KA,  McEvoy M, Schofield PW, Garg ML. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive decline in non-demented adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. // Nutrition Reviews
Simopoulos A. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. // Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Li ZH, Zhong WF et al. Associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality: evidence from a large population based cohort study. // BMJ
Bernasconi AA, Wiest MM, Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Laukkanen JA. Effect of Omega-3 Dosage on Cardiovascular Outcomes. // Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Costantini L, Molinari R, Farinon B, Merendino N. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota. // International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Larsen R, Eilertsen KE, Elvevoll EO. Health benefits of marine foods and ingredients. // Biotechnology Advances
Godos J, Castellano S, Galvano F, Grosso G. Linking Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression. // Omega Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health
Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. // PLoS One
Sohrabi N, Kashanian M, Seyed Ghafoori S, Kazem Malakouti S. Evaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: “a pilot trial”. // Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Walker RE et al. Predicting the effects of supplemental EPA and DHA on the omega-3 index. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Abdulrazaq M, Innes JK, Calder PC. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on arthritic pain: a systematic review. // Nutrition
Ailhaud G., Massiera F., Weill P., Legrand P., Alessandri J.M. & Guesnet P. Temporal changes in dietary fats: role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive adipose tissue development and relationship to obesity. // Progress in Lipid Research
Ajith TA. A recent update on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer’s disease. // Current Clinical Pharmacology
Al-Momen AK. Diminished vitamin B12 levels in patients with severe sickle cell disease. // Alternative Medicine Review
Amminger, G.P.; Schafer, M.R.; Papageorgiou, K.; Klier, C.M.; Cotton, S.M.; Harrigan, S.M.; Mackinnon, A.; McGorry, P.D.; Berger, G.E. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. // Archives of General Psychiatry
Andruchow ND, Konishi K, Shatenstein B, et al. A lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids predicts better hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and cognitive status in older adults. // Neuropsychology
Arnoldussen IAC, Kiliaan AJ. Impact of DHA on Metabolic Diseases from Womb to Tomb. // Marine Drugs
Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H. Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Barden AE, Moghaddami M, Mas E, Phillips M, Cleland LG, Mori TA. . alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. // Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Batlle de J, Sauleda J, Balcells E et al. PAC-COPD Study Group. Association between Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acid intakes and serum inflammatory markers in COPD. // Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Bazan NG, Molina MF, Gordon WC. Docosahexaenoic acid signalolipidomics in nutrition: significance in aging, neuroinflammation, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s, and other neurodegenerative diseases. // Annual Review of Nutrition
Berger GE, Proffitt TM, McConchie M, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. // Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Beydoun MA, Kaufman JS, Sloane PD, Heiss G, Ibrahim J. n-3 Fatty acids, hypertension and risk of cognitive decline among older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. // Public Health Nutrition
Blachnio-Zabielska, A.U.; Chacinska, M.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Zabielski, P. The Crucial Role of C18-Cer in Fat-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance. // Cellullar Physiology and Biochemistry
Boer, M. Wetten, M-L. Pruimboom, L. (2012). Chronic inflammatory diseases are stimulated by current lifestyle: How diet, stress levels and medication prevent our body from recovering. // Nutrition & Metabolism
Bondi CO, Taha AY, Tock JL, et al. Adolescent behavior and dopamine availability are uniquely sensitive to dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency. // Biological Psychiatry
Boshuizen HC, Lanti M, Menotti A, Moschandreas J, Tolonen H, Nissinen A, et al. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error. // American Journal of Epidemiology
Bradbury J, Brooks L, Myers SP. Are the Adaptogenic Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Mediated via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines? // Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Oliver C. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot). // Nutrition Journal
Bradbury J. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. // Nutrients
Brenna JT, Salem N Jr, Sinclair AJ et al. Alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. // Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids
Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the Effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the Clinical Course of Hyperlipidemia. // Alternative Medicine Review
Burckhardt M, Herke M, Wustmann T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of dementia. // Cochrane Database Systematic Review
Calder, PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance, // Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I et al. Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. // Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Canhada S, Castro K, Perry IS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids’ supplementation in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. // Nutritional Neuroscience
Carrie I, Clement M, de Javel D, Frances H, Bourre JM. Specific phospholipid fatty acid composition of brain regions in mice. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and phospholipid supplementation. // Journal of Lipid Research
Carter JR, Schwartz CE, Yang H et al. Fish oil and neurovascular reactivity to mental stress in humans. // American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Caudill MA. Pre- and postnatal health: evidence of increased choline needs. // Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Chacińska, Zabielski, Książek, Szałaj, Jarząbek, Kojta, … Błachnio-Zabielska. The Impact of OMEGA-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Insulin Resistance and Content of Adipocytokines and Biologically Active Lipids in Adipose Tissue of High-Fat Diet Fed Rats. // Nutrients
Chang CL, Deckelbaum RJ. Omega-3 fatty acids: mechanisms underlying ‘protective effects’ in atherosclerosis. // Current Opinion in Lipidology
Chapkin RS, Miller CC, Somers SD, Erickson KL. Ability of 15- hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-OH-20:3) to modulate macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism. // Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Checa-Ros A, Haro-Garcia A, Seiquer I, et al. Early monitoring of fatty acid profile in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder under treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. // Minerva Pediatrica
Chilton L, Surette ME, Swan DD, Fonteh AN, Johnson MM, Chilton FH. Metabolism of gammalinolenic acid in human neutrophils. // Journal of Immunology
Chilton, F. H., Rudel, L. L., Parks, J. S., Arm, J. P., & Seeds, M. C. (2008). Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chiu YH. Karmon AE. Gaskins AJ. Arvizu M. Williams PL. Souter I. Rueda BR. Hauser R. Chavarro JE.; EARTH Study Team. Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction. // Human Reproduction
Chong EW, Kreis AJ, Wong TY, Simpson JA, Guymer RH. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. // Archives of Ophthalmology
Chong EW, Robman LD, Simpson JA et al. Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration. // Archives of Ophthalmology
Christen Y. Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Cole GM, Frautschy SA. DHA may prevent age-related dementia. // Journal of Nutrition
Conquer JA, Holub BJ. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores. // Lipids
Cotogni P., Muzio G., Trombetta A., Ranieri V.M., Canuto R.A. Impact of the omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on cytokine release in human alveolar cells. // Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutritio
Cunnane SC, Plourde M, Pifferi F et al. Fish, docosahexaenoic acid and Alzheimer’s disease. // Progress in Lipid Research
Daak AA, Ghebremeskel K, Hassan Z et al. Effect of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acid supplementation in patients with sickle cell anemia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniells S. Harvard meta-analysis supports benefits of algal DHA omega-3. // Nutraingredients US
De Caterina R. n−3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. // New England Journal of Medicine
Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Aslibekyan S, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: pooling project of 19 cohort studies. // JAMA Internal Medicine
Dessì, Mariarita et al. Atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and inflammation: the significant role of polyunsaturated Fatty acids. // ISRN Inflammation
Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on Chronic Inflammation and Arthritic symptoms. //Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Dinicolantonio JJ, McCarty MF, Chatterjee S, Lavie CJ, O’Keefe JH. A higher dietary ratio of long-chain omega-3 to total omega-6 fatty acids for prevention of COX-2- dependent adenocarcinomas. // Nutrition and Cancer
Dobryn iewski J, Szajda SD, Waszkiewicz N, Zwierz K. Biology of essential fatty acids [EFA)]. // Przegl Lek
Dyall SC, Michael-Titus AT. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. // Neuromolecular Medicine
Dyall, SC. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair. // Lipid
Dyerberg J, Madsen P, Møller JM et al. Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulations. // Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Elagizi A, Lavie CJ, Marshall K, DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Milani R5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: A Comprehensive Review. // Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Elkhouli AM. The efficacy of host response modulation therapy (omega-3 plus low-dose aspirin) as an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research
Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. // American Journal of Psychiatry
Escolano-Margarit MV, Ramos R, Beyer J et al. Prenatal DHA status and neurological outcome in children at age 5.5 years are positively associated. // Journal of Nutrition
Ferruci L, Cherubini A, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Corsi A, Lauretani F, Martin A, Andres-Lacueva C, Senin U, Guralnik JM. Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers. // Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Flock, MR, Harris, WS, & Kris-Etherton, PM. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: time to establish a dietary reference intake. // Nutrition Reviews
Focke M, Sesztak-Greinecker G, Brannath W et al. Plasma levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with atopic dermatitis and in atopic and nonatopic controls. // Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
Fore-Pfliger J. The epidermal skin barrier: implications for the wound care practitioner, part II. // Advances in Skin and Wound Care
Frankenberg ADV. Reis AF. Gerchman F. Relationships between adiponectin levels, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes: a literature review. // Archives of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Freund-Levi Y, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, Basun H, Faxen-Irving G, Garlind A, Grut M, Vedin I. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial. // Archives of Neurology
Gao X, Chen H, Fung TT, et al. Prospective study of dietary pattern and risk of Parkinson disease. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Garaiova I, Guschina IA, Plummer SF et al. A randomised cross-over trial in healthy adults indicating improved absorption of omega-3 fatty acids by pre-emulsification. // Nutrition Journal
Gelder van BM, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, Kromhout D. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)? // International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
Gow RV, Hibbeln JR. Omega-3 fatty acid and nutrient deficits in adverse neurodevelopment and childhood behaviors. // Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Green KN, Martinez-Coria H, Khashwji H, et al. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ameliorate amyloid-beta and tau pathology via a mechanism involving presenilin 1 levels. // Journal of Neuroscience
Gregory MK, Gibson RA, Cook-Johnson RJ et al. Elongase reactions as control points in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. PLoS One
Grosso, Giuseppe et al. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PloS One
Guesnet P, Alessandri JM. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS) – implications for dietary recommendations. // Biochimie
Gustafsson PA, Birberg-Thornberg U, Duchen K, Landgren M, Malmberg K, Pelling H et al. EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD. Acta Paediatriatica
Hansen AE, Wiese HF, Boelsche AN, Adam DJD. Role of linoleic acid in infant nutrition. Clinical and chemical study of 428 infants fed on milk mixtures varying in kind and amount of fat. // Pediatrics
Harris W. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids: partners in prevention. // Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care
Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Lefevre M et al. Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. // Journal of Nutrition
Hashimoto M, Hossain S. Neuroprotective and ameliorative actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids against neuronal diseases: beneficial effect of docosahexaenoic acid on cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. // Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hawkey E, Nigg JT. Omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD: blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials. // Clinical Psychology Review
Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K et al. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. // Pediatrics
Heude B, Ducimetiere P, Berr C. Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes—The EVA Study. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hodge WG, Schachter HM, Barnes D, Pan Y, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review. // Ophthalmology
Hooper C, De Souto Barreto P, Coley N, et al. Cognitive changes with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in non-demented older adults with low omega-3 index. // Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Horrobin DF. Fatty acid metabolism in health and disease: the role of delta-6-desaturase. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Houterman S, Verschuren WMM, Kromhout D. Smoking, blood pressure and serum cholesterol-effects on 20-year mortality. // Epidemiology
Hurst S, Zainal Z, Caterson B et al. Dietary fatty acids and arthritis. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Hussey EK, Portelli S, Fossler MJ, Gao F, Harris WS, Blum RA. Relative Bioavailability of an Emulsion Formulation for Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Compared to the Commercially Available Formulation: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Study Followed by Repeat Dosing in Healthy Volunteers. // Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Imhoff-Kunsch B, Stein AD, Martorell R et al. Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and infant morbidity: randomized controlled trial. // Pediatrics
Jamilian H, Solhi H, Jamilian M. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of omega-3 as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Glob Journal of Health Sciences
Janssen, CIF. & Kiliaan, AJ (2014). Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: The influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration. // Progress in Lipid Research
Jia-Jin Zhu, Jia-Hui Shi, Wen-Bin Qian, et al. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells. // Lipids in Health and Disease
John S, Luben R, Shrestha SS, et al. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: a UK prospective cohort study. // European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kerscher MJ, Korting HC. Treatment of atopic eczema with evening primrose oil: rationale and clinical results. // Clinical Investigations
Kiczorowska, Bożena et al. Nutrient and Mineral Profile of Chosen Fresh and Smoked Fish. // Nutrients
Kidd PM. Integrated Brain Restoration after Ischemic Stroke – Medical Management, Risk Factors, Nutrients, and other Interventions for Managing Inflammation and Enhancing Brain Plasticity. // Alternative Medicine Review
Konagai C, Yanagimoto K, Hayamizu K, Han L, Tsuji T, Koga Y. Effects of krill oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid form on human brain function: a randomized controlled trial in healthy elderly volunteers. // Clinical Interventions in Aging
Kouchaki E, Afarini M, Abolhassani J, et al. High-dose omega-3 fatty acid plus vitamin D3 supplementation affects clinical symptoms and metabolic status of patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. // Journal of Nutrition
Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Noakes PS et al. Atopy risk in infants and children in relation to early exposure to fish, oily fish, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: a systematic review. // Clinical Review of Allergy and Immunology
Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Janneke Dijck-Brouwer DA et al. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Kuratko CN, Nolan CC, Jr Salem N. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovasculair health. // Nutrafoods
La Rosa F, Clerici M, Ratto D, et al. The gut-brain axis in Alzheimer’s disease and omega-3. A critical overview of clinical trials. // Nutrients Lassek WD, Gaulin SJ. Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in 28 nations. // Maternal & Child Nutrition
Lau de LM, Bornebroek M, Witteman JC, et al. Dietary fatty acids and the risk of Parkinson disease: the Rotterdam study. // Neurology
Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Mehra MR, Ventura HO. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. // Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Layé S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, neuroinflammation and well being. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Leeuwen, van EM, Emri E, Merle BMJ, Colijn JM, Kersten E, Cougnard-Gregoire A, Dammeier S Meester-Smoor, M, Pool FM, de Jong EK, et al. A new perspective on lipid research in age-related macular degeneration. // Prog. Retin. Eye Research
Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R, Sherliker P, Emberson J, Halsey J, et al. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths. // Lancet
Lien EL. Toxicology and safety of DHA. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Lin PY, Chiu CC, Huang SY, et al. A meta-analytic review of polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions in dementia. // Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Lindqvist HM, Gjertsson I, Eneljung T, Winkvist A. Influence of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) intake on disease activity in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the mira randomized cross-over dietary intervention. // Nutrients
Liu G, Fiala M, Mizwicki MT, Sayre J, Magpantay L, Siani A et al. Neuronal phagocytosis by inflammatory macrophages in ALS spinal cord: inhibition of inflammation by resolvin D1. // American Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Logan AC. Neurobehavioral Aspects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Mechanisms and Therapeutic Value in Major Depression. // Alternative Medicine Review
Long SJ, Benton D. A double-blind trial of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin and mineral supplementation on aggression, impulsivity, and stress. // Human Psychopharmacology
Lucas M, Asselin G, Mérette C et al. Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. // Menopause
Lucas M, Asselin G, Mérette C, Poulin MJ, Dodin S. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lukaschek K, von Schacky C, Kruse J, et al. Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with a Low Omega-3 Index in the Elderly: Results from the KORA-Age Study. // Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
Maki KC, Reeves MS, Farmer M, et al. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. // Nutr Res.
Mamalakis G, Kiriakakis M, Tsibinos G, Kafatos A. Depression and adipose polyunsaturated fatty acids in the survivors of the Seven Countries Study population of Crete. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Manku MS, Horrobin DF, Morse N et al. Reduced levels of prostaglandin precursors in the blood of atopic patients: defective delta-6-desaturase function as a biochemical basis for atopy. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, Chieffo C, Di Gregorio D, Di Mascio R, Franzosi MG, Geraci E, Levantesi G, Maggioni AP, Mantini L, Marfisi RM, Mastrogiuseppe G, Mininni N, Nicolosi GL, Santini M, Schweiger C, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Tucci C, Valagussa F. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. // Circulation
Maroon JC, Bost JW. Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. // Surgical Neurology
Martin D, Nieto-Fuentes JA, Señoráns FJ et al. Intestinal digestion of fish oils and ω-3 concentrates under in vitro conditions. // European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Martins JG et al. EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. // Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Massaro, M.; Scoditti, E.; Carluccio, M.A.; De Caterina, R. Basic mechanisms behind the effects of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease. // Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids
Masterton GS, Plevris JN, Hayes PC. Review article: omega-3 fatty acids – a promising novel therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. // Aliment Pharmacological Therapies
McCusker, M. M., & Grant-Kels, J. M. (2010). Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids. // Clinics in Dermatology
McDaniel JC et al. Fish oil supplementation alters levels of lipid mediators of inflammation in microenvironment of acute human wounds. Wound Repair and Regeneration
McKeever T.M., Lewis S.A., Cassano P.A., Ocke M., Burney P., Britton J., Smit H.A. The relation between dietary intake of individual fatty acids, FEV1 and respiratory disease in Dutch adults. // Thorax
Mello de AH, Schraiber RB, Goldim MPS, Mathias K, Mendes C, Corrêa MEAB, Gomes ML, Silveira PCL, Schuck PF, Petronilho F, Rezin GT. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects on visceral fat in diet-induced obesity model. // Biochemical Cell Biology
Miedema, I.; Feskens, E.J.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, D. Dietary determinants of long-term incidence of chronic nonspecific lung diseases. The Zutphen Study. // American Journal of Epidemiology
Miller PE, Van Elswyk M, Alexander DD. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. // American Journal of Hypertension
Milte CM, Parletta N, Buckley JD et al. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial. // Nutrition
Montgomery P, Burton JR, Sewell RP, et al. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study. // PLoS One
Morris MC, Evans DA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Wilson RS. Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study. // Archives of Neurology
Morse, Nancy L. Benefits of docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, vitamin D and iodine on foetal and infant brain development and function following maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. // Nutrients
Mostowik M, Gajos G, Zalewski J et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase plasma adiponectin to leptin ratio in stable coronary artery disease. // Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapies
Mousavi Nasl-Khameneh A, Mirshafiey A, Naser Moghadasi A, et al. Combination treatment of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibit IL-17 and RORgammat gene expression in PBMCs of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. // Neurological Research
Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. // Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Mun, Jonathan G et al. Choline and DHA in Maternal and Infant Nutrition: Synergistic Implications in Brain and Eye Health. // Nutrients
Naqvi AZ, Hasturk A, Mu L, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Halem S et al. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Periodontitis in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. // Journal of Dental Research
Neubronner J, Schuchardt JP, Kressel G et al. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to longterm n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. // European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nobili V, Alisi A, Della Corte C, Rise P, Galli C, Agostoni C, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid for the treatment of fatty liver: randomised controlled trial in children. // Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases
Nobili V, Bedogni G, Alisi A, Pietrobattista A, Rise P, Galli C, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial. // Archives of Diseases in Childhood
Nobili V, Carpino G, Alisi A, De Vito R, Franchitto A, Alpini G, et al. Role of docosahexaenoic acid treatment in improving liver histology in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. // PLoS One
Nordvik I, Myhr KM, Nyland H, Bjerve KS. Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients. // Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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